The Government's recent consultation on extending the ban on combustible materials to more building types and lowering the height restriction in England from 18m to 11m closed on 25 May. Andrew Carpenter, Chief Executive of the Structural Timber Association (STA) discusses how this ruling if adopted will severely inhibit our ability to decarbonise the UK construction industry.
In late May, Roger Harrabin, the BBC's Energy and Environment Analyst, reported that the Government is planning to reduce the maximum height of timber framed buildings from six storeys to four to reduce fire risk. Harrabin rightly pointed out that this action would contradict other advice to increase timber construction because trees lock up climate-heating carbon emissions.
But this also flies in the face of the support that the government itself has shown for offsite manufacturing to deliver much needed housing - the most efficient of which are timber-based systems.
Furthermore, it is clear that the UK is out of step with the approach being taken by leading economies in Europe as evidenced by the actions of President Macron - he has ruled that all new publicly funded buildings in France should be delivered from at least 50% timber or other natural materials by 2022.
Another study from Germany's Potsdam Institute found that a global boom in wood buildings could lock-in up to 700 million tons of carbon a year.
And I can only agree with the head of the Committee on Climate Change, Chris Stark when he said: "Timber buildings can be tall and safe. Displacing cement, brick and steel with wood means more than double the carbon savings in buildings overall."
The STA and other timber trade bodies say the Government in England has misunderstood the science behind timber construction. A blanket ban that is not based on building physics, test evidence or scientific facts is seen as a quick fix and, as a result, the UK could face far-reaching consequences for decades to come. Climate change is not some abstract concept. If not dramatically addressed it will be catastrophic and the biggest crisis of our time.
The Government's response to climate change has been to set net zero carbon targets by 2050 but there is no ‘road map' to navigate this journey if the most sustainable and replenishable of all building products is potentially banned. With as much as 7% of all global CO2 emissions coming from other less sustainable construction technologies, it is difficult to see how these targets will ever be met if these restrictions come into force.
The blanket banning of products does not address the findings of the Hackitt Review that call for more accountability and responsibility in how buildings are constructed. Nor does banning products improve build quality or clarify roles and responsibilities in the decision-making process. I could go on, but the point is made. Height restrictions are not a measurement of safety. Poor design results in inferior and not necessarily safe buildings - regardless of the technology from which they are constructed.
The lack of clarity as to what the ban applies to is creating confusion and the STA and our members firmly believe that any extension to the current 18m restriction should focus on the external cladding and not the structural wall itself. We will only support this height restriction on the proviso that Building Regulations replicate the Scottish model where 18m is still acceptable when supported by evidence of non-combustible cladding and well-designed fire management systems. These views together with robust test evidence have been reflected in the STA's response to the Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government (MHCLG) consultation.
As part of their continual development programme, the STA has been collaborating with the Construction Scotland Innovation Centre, the University of Edinburgh and BRE to produce fire safety in use guidance for timber frame buildings. Fire safety in use affects all forms of construction. All buildings must be designed to comply with the functional protocols of the Building Regulations for fire safety requirements, as a minimum standard.
The STA has invested in an industry-leading fire in use research project to test and prove commonly used timber frame wall, floor and roof make-ups used in the UK marketplace.
The output of this research, a pattern book of EN tested systems, is believed to be the first of its kind in the UK timber frame sector. This research now forms part of the STA's best practice guidance and is free to download from: www.structuraltimber.co.uk/links/research-documents